Minggu, 12 Desember 2010

Avro Lancaster B-1

Avro Lancaster

Lancaster nggris adalah yang paling terkenal berat bomber dari Perang Dunia II. Mampu membawa bom yang memuat hingga 22.000 pound, Lancasters, terbang pada malam hari, di Jerman dan memghancurkan pabrik-pabrik.

Bomber Command sebagai favorit dari pesawat terbang, Lancaster yang telah banyak digunakan pada operasi khusus, seperti 1943-bendungan busting mogok dan Tirpitz tenggelamnya kapal raids. Tetapi keberhasilan Lancaster tak lepas dari pengorbanan yang besar, lebih dari 55.000 crewnya hilang dalam waktu yang berbeda dalam perang.

Specifications (Avro 683 Lancaster B.Mk I & III)
Type: Seven or Eight Seat Heavy Bomber
Design: Chief Designer Roy Chadwick and Managing Director Roy Dobson of A. V. Roe Aircraft Company Limited based on the Avro 679 Manchester design
Propellers: Hamilton-Standard or Rotol propellers. In later aircraft paddle-bladed Nash-Kelvinator propellers were used increasing the cruising speed by 8 mph (12.9 km/h) and the service ceiling by 1,500 ft (457 m). The airscrew shaft was a SBAC No. 5 type with a reduction gear ratio of 0.42:1.
Performance: (Early B.Mk I) Maximum speed 275 mph (443 km/h) at 15,000 ft (4572 m). (Late B.Mk I) Maximum speed 287 mph (462 km/h) at 11,500 ft (3505 m), 275 mph (443 km/h) at 15,000 ft (4572 m), 260 mph (419 km/h) at 19,400 ft (5913 m); cruising speed 234 mph (377 km/h) at 21,000 ft (6401 m), 200 mph (322 km/h) at 15,000 ft (4572 m); stalling speed (clean) 95 mph (153 km/h) at 60,000 lbs (27211 kg); normal service ceiling 23,000 ft (7010 m), nominal service ceiling 24,500 ft (7468 m); absolute service ceiling 24,671 ft (7500 m); climb to 20,000 ft (6096 m) in 41 minutes and 40 seconds; initial rate of climb 250 ft (76 m) per minute with full bombload. In a hard dive the prototype aircraft achieved speeds reaching almost 400 mph (644 km/h) with production aircraft (operational loadout) being limited to 360 mph (578 km/h).
Carburetion (Merlin): SU float carburettor, type AVT 40 / 241 / 216 / 224 / 227. American built Packard Merlins had the Bendix Stromberg pressure-injected type.

Ignition (Merlin): Two BTH C.5 SE12-S or Rotax NSE12-4 magnetos.

Fuel Capacity / Specification: A total of six fuel tanks consisting of two 580 Imperial gallon (703 US gallon or 2637 litre) inboard tanks, two 383 Imperial gallon (464 US gallon or 1740 litre) intermediate tanks and two 114 Imperial gallon (138 US gallon or 518 litre) outboard tanks giving the aircraft a total fuel capacity of 2,154 Imperial gallons (2,610.6 US gallons or 9790 litres). Provisions for one or two overload fuel tanks of 400 Imperial gallons (485 US gallons or 1818 litres) each could be carried in the bomb bay. Fuel specification 100 / 130 Grade DED 2475 (AN-F-28).
Defensive Armament: A total of ten 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Browning machine-guns in a nose, mid-upper, tail and ventral position.

* 2 × 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Browning Mk II trainable forward-firing machine-guns in the power-operated Frazer-Nash F.N.5A nose turret with 1,000 rounds per gun using a Barr & Stroud G Mk III reflector sight
* 2 × 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Browning Mk II trainable machine-guns in the power-operated Frazer-Nash F.N.50 (Boulton-Paul) dorsal turret with 1,000 rounds per gun using a Barr & Stroud G Mk IIIA reflector sight.
* 4 × 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Browning Mk II trainable rearward-firing machine-guns in the power-operated Frazer-Nash F.N.20A tail turret with 2,500 rounds per gun using a Barr & Stroud G Mk III reflector or Gyro Mk IIc sight.
* 2 x 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Browning Mk II trainable rearward firing machine-guns in a power-operated Frazer-Nash F.N.64 ventral turret with 500 rounds per gun using a periscopic sight. (This position did not have a dedicated gunner)

Variants: BT308 (first prototype), DG595 (second prototype), B.Mk I, B.Mk I Special (Grand Slam), B.Mk I FE (Far East), B.Mk II (Hercules engines), B.Mk III, B.Mk III Type 464 Special (Dambuster), B.Mk IV (renamed Lincoln Mk I), B.Mk V (renamed Lincoln Mk II), B.Mk VI, B.Mk VII, B.Mk VIII FE (Far East), B.Mk X (Canadian Built).

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